36 characteristics typical of fascist regimes

The following handy reference is copied directly from  Tschentscher, Axel, Footprints of the Evil: Techniques of Nazi Lawmaking (March 27, 2010).1–copied directly, except that the original was an unnumbered list, with the following surrounding explanations:
Scholarship has tried to get a grasp on the phenomenon of Nazi rule and on the broader fascist movement in continental Europe by listing the properties of these regimes. Since fascism does not acknowledge a separation of state and society or individual and community, those properties extend from law and politics to quite diverse fields: social psychology, military, gender roles, ordinary language, even to fashion. [This] is a topical list, not a classification or definition. None of the fascist regimes fit the descriptive items in quite the same way. Properties most notably and sometimes exclusively associated with Nazi rule are printed in bold. Properties with strong impact on legal instruments are [italicized]. Readers are very welcome to suggest corrections or amendments by mail: footprints-of-the-evil@verfassungsgeschichte.ch.
 
  1. Unconditional solidarity with a nation of common destiny
  2. Self-sacrifice unto death
  3. Idealization of soldiers, uniforms, mass events
  4. Militarization and mechanization of everyday language
  5. Friend-foe-pattern in external and internal politics
  6. Exceptionally harsh punishments for political “crimes”
  7. Racism, particularly Antisemitism
  8. Exchanging rationality by irrational concepts (race, providence)
  9. War and genocide as political means
  10. Rejection of individual human rights
  11. Elimination of democratic control
  12. Abolition of the separation of powers (both horizontal and vertical)
  13. Contempt for parliaments
  14. State activism in education, civil society, propaganda
  15. Paternalistic systems for employment, invalidity, maternity
  16. Charismatic leadership styled as personality cult
  17. Replacement of legal rationales by community rationales
  18. Overruling systematic competencies by concurring responsibilities
  19. Subordinating the economy to politics
  20. Imposing unlimited state power to all aspects of life
  21. Uniformity of media, education, science
  22. Secret police for internal control
  23. Centralization of governmental powers
  24. Aligning civil society for the fascist “movement”
  25. Perpetual mobilization and aligning of citizens as a mass
  26. Moral reevaluation (compassion as cowardice, murder as welfare)
  27. Exploiting the law as political weapon
  28. Contempt for the law, where it limits politics
  29. Government by measures, not by general laws
  30. Masking tyranny as legal government
  31. Rule by one party with armed party forces
  32. Pseudo-religious direction of leadership
  33. National resurrection after decline or humiliation
  34. Uniformed youth organization with paramilitary education
  35. Megalomania and symbolism of grandeur in architecture and art
  36. Cult of supremacy in the perception of nation, race, culture

References   [ + ]

1. –copied directly, except that the original was an unnumbered list, with the following surrounding explanations: Scholarship has tried to get a grasp on the phenomenon of Nazi rule and on the broader fascist movement in continental Europe by listing the properties of these regimes. Since fascism does not acknowledge a separation of state and society or individual and community, those properties extend from law and politics to quite diverse fields: social psychology, military, gender roles, ordinary language, even to fashion. [This] is a topical list, not a classification or definition. None of the fascist regimes fit the descriptive items in quite the same way. Properties most notably and sometimes exclusively associated with Nazi rule are printed in bold. Properties with strong impact on legal instruments are [italicized]. Readers are very welcome to suggest corrections or amendments by mail: footprints-of-the-evil@verfassungsgeschichte.ch.

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