Map of Ummayad Syria

Qays and Yaman tribes

[Arab geneologists] offer[] a scheme of the subdivision of patriarchal tribes by which all Arabs who possess a nisba or gentile name can trace back their genealogy to one of two ultimate stocks, the Yemenite…

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Sykes–Picot Agreement

The 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement was a secret agreement between the British and French governments regarding the division of the Ottoman Empire’s territory if the Ottoman Empire were defeated by the Allies in World War I….

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Battle of Siffin

The chronology and exact course of events are somewhat vague, but generally tradition puts Mu‘awiya’s decision to come out openly against ‘Ali only after the battle of the Camel. At first, we are told, he…

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Battle of the Camel

In 656, finally a group of Muslims disaffected by Uthman’s rule conspired against the caliph and murdered him. By communal consensus, Ali succeeded Abu Bakr and became the Fourth Rightly Guided Caliph (Khulafa al-Rashidun). Two…

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Battle of Karbala

A key event in the Shia-Sunni schism is the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD (61 years post-Hijra). The historical context of the Battle is the power struggle that emerged upon the death of Muhammad….